What is capacitor and capacitor calculations.

Capacitor is an electronic component that storeselectric charge. The capacitor is made of 2 close conductors (usually plates) that are separated by a dielectric material. The plates accumulate electric charge when connected to power source. One plate accumulates positive charge and the other plate accumulates negative charge.

The capacitance is the amount of electric charge that is stored in the capacitor at voltage of 1 Volt.

The capacitance is measured in units ofFarad(F).

The capacitor disconnects current in direct current (DC) circuits and short circuit in alternating current (AC) circuits.

The capacitance (C) of the capacitor is equal to the electric charge (Q) divided by the voltage (V):

Q is the electric charge in coulombs (C), that is stored on the capacitor

V is the voltage between the capacitors plates in volts (V)

The capacitance (C) of the plates capacitor is equal to the permittivity () times the plate area (A) divided by the gap or distance between the plates (d):

C is the capacitance of the capacitor, in farad (F).

is the permittivity of the capacitors dialectic material, in farad per meter (F/m).

A is the area of the capacitors plate in square meters (m2].

d is the distance between the capacitors plates, in meters (m).

The total capacitance of capacitors in series, C1,C2,C3,.. :

The total capacitance of capacitors in parallel, C1,C2,C3,.. :

The capacitors momentary current ic(t) is equal to the capacitance of the capacitor,

times the derivative of the momentary capacitors voltage vc(t):

The capacitors momentary voltage vc(t) is equal to the initial voltage of the capacitor,

plus 1/C times the integral of the momentary capacitors current ic(t) over time t:

The capacitors stored energyECin joules (J) is equal to the capacitanceCin farad (F)

times the square capacitors voltageVCin volts (V) divided by 2:

– angular velocity measured in radians per second (rad/s)

f – frequency measured in hertz (Hz).

Variable capacitor has changeable capacitance

Electrolytic capacitors are used when high capacitance is needed. Most of the electrolytic capacitors are polarized

Spherical capacitor has a sphere shape

Power capacitors are used in high voltage power systems.

Ceramic capacitor has ceramic dielectric material. Has high voltage functionality.

Tantalum oxide dielectric material. Has high capacitance